HISTORY AND EVOLUTION
Hausa has a place with the West Chadic dialects subgroup of the Chadic dialects gathering, which thusly is essential for the Afroasiatic language family.
Hausa has numerous words that are not found in other Chadic languages on the grounds that they are advances from Adamawa, Level, Kainji, Nupoid, and other Benue-Congo dialects obtained during its development across the Nigerian Center Belt. While those dialects got absorbed, a significant number of their words had changed the dictionary of Hausa. Some probably impact from disappeared Nilo-Saharan dialects on Hausa has been proposed.
Hausa presents a wide consistency at any place it’s spoken. Notwithstanding, etymologists have distinguished vernacular territories with a group of highlights normal for each one.
Eastern Hausa lingos remember Dauranci for Daura, Kananci in Kano, Bausanci in Bauchi, Gudduranci in Katagum Misau and part of Borno, and Hadejanci in Hadejiya.
Western Hausa vernaculars remember Sakkwatanci for Sokoto, Katsinanci in Katsina, Arewanci in Gobir, Adar, Kebbi, and Zamfara, and Kurhwayanci in Kurfey in Niger. Katsina is momentary among Eastern and Western lingos. Sokoto is utilized in an assortment of traditional Hausa writing, and is frequently known as Old style Hausa.
Northern Hausa vernaculars incorporate Arewa (signifying 'North') and Arewaci.
Zazzaganci in Zazzau is crucial Southern lingo.
The Daura (Dauranchi) and Kano (Kananci) lingo are the norm. In late language advancement Zazzaganci assumed control over the development of composing and communicating in the current Hausa language use.
Northernmost vernaculars and loss of resonance
The western to eastern Hausa vernaculars of Kurhwayanci, Damagaram and Aderawa, address the customary northernmost restriction of local Hausa people group. These are articulated in the northernmost sahel and mid-Saharan locales in west and focal Niger in the Tillaberi, Tahoua, Dosso, Maradi, Agadez and Zinder areas. While commonly intelligible with different lingos (particularly Sakkwatanci, and less significantly Gaananci), the northernmost vernaculars have slight linguistic and lexical contrasts attributable to visit contact with the Zarma, Fula, and Tuareg gatherings and social changes inferable from the geological contrasts between the prairie and desert zones. These lingos additionally have the nature of verging on non-apparent pitch highlight tongues.
This connection between non-resonance and geographic area isn't restricted to Hausa alone, yet is shown in other northern tongues of adjoining dialects, for example, contrasts inside the Songhay language (betwixt non-apparent northernmost vernaculars of Koyra Chiini in Timbuktu and Koyraboro Senni in Gao; and the apparent southern Zarma lingo, articulated from western Niger to northern Ghana), and inside Soninke lingo (betwixt non-apparent northernmost lingos of Imraguen and Nemadi articulated in east-focal Mauritania; and the apparent southern lingos of Senegal, Mali and the Sahel).
Ghanaian Hausa vernacular
The Ghanaian Hausa vernacular (Gaananci), spoken in Ghana and Togo, is a particular western local Hausa tongue alliance with satisfactory etymological and media assets accessible. Discrete added modest Hausa tongues are articulated by an obscure tally of Hausa extended west in pieces of Burkina Faso, and in the Haoussa Foulane, Badji Haoussa, Guezou Haoussa, and Ansongo areas of northeastern Mali (where it is assigned as a minority language by the Malian government), yet there are almost no etymological assets and exploration done on these specific lingos right now.
Gaananci structures a different gathering from other Western Hausa lingos, as it currently falls outside the bordering Hausa-prevailing zone, and is generally distinguished by the utilization of c for ky, and j for gy. This is credited to the way that Ghana's Hausa populace slide from Hausa-Fulani merchants got comfortable the zongo locale of significant exchange towns all over the past Asante, Gonja and Dagomba realms extending from the sahel to seaside areas, specifically the urban communities of Tamale, Salaga, Bawku, Bolgatanga, Achimota, Nima and Kumasi.
Gaananci shows eminent bent impacts from Zarma, Gur, Jula-Bambara, Akan, and Soninke, as Ghana is the westernmost region where Hausa lingo is a significant most widely used language amidst sahelian/Muslim West Africans, together with both Ghanaian and non-Ghanaian zango travelers fundamentally from the northern areas, or Mali and Burkina Faso. Ghana additionally denotes the westernmost limit where the Hausa public occupy in any impressive number. Quickly west and north of Ghana (in Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso), Hausa is suddenly supplanted with Dioula–Bambara as the fundamental sahelian/Muslim most widely used language of what become dominatingly Manding regions, and local Hausa-speakers fall to a little metropolitan minority.
Other local lingos
Hausa is likewise spoken in different pieces of Cameroon and Chad, which joined the blended tongues of Northern Nigeria and Niger. What's more, Arabic has had an extraordinary impact in the manner Hausa is spoken by the local Hausa speakers in these territories.
There are a few lingos types of Hausa. Barikanchi was earlier utilized in the pioneer multitude of Nigeria. Gibanawa is presently in boundless utilization in Jega in northwestern Nigeria, south of the local Hausa territory.
Local orators of Hausa, the Hausa public, are generally detected in Niger, in Northern Nigeria, Northern Cameroon, and in Chad. Besides, the lingo is utilized as a most widely used language by non-local orators in the vast majority of Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger, and as an exchange lingo across a lot bigger wrap of West Africa (Benin, Ghana, Cameroon, Togo, Chad and areas of Sudan).
Majority Hausa orators reside in Northern Nigeria and Southern Republic of Niger. In Nigeria, Hausa-talking region includes the chronicled emirates of Kano, Katsina, Daura, Zaria and Gobir, which were all joined into the Sokoto caliphate backingthe Fulani Jihad drove by Usman Shehu Ɗanfodio in the mid nineteenth centennial. Hausa is likewise spoken in diaspora by merchants, researchers and migrants in metropolitan zones of West Africa, for instance, southern and focal Nigeria, Benin Republic, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Togo just as Chad and the Blue Nile Area and western locale of the Sudan.
Hausa is spoken by 18.5 million individuals in Nigeria. It is communicated in as a 1st lingo by an expected 24 million orators and as a second or third lingo by an extra 15 million individuals over a wide belt of nations of West Africa, involving Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Focal African Republic, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ghana, Niger, Sudan, and Togo (Ethnologue). It is considered crucial extensively utilized lingo for Muslim populaces in a lot of West Africa. Each city of any size in West Africa has an enormous Hausa people group. Hausa is utilized in trade, government and the media. While advanced education in northern Nigeria will in general be in English, Hausa fills in as the language of guidance in grade schools. There are a few Hausa language papers and a developing assortment of writing.