HISTORY AND EVOLUTION
The origin of the Hindi word is related to 'Sindhu'. 'Sindhu' is called 'Sindh' river. The area around the Indus River is called Indus Pradesh. The Sanskrit word 'Sindhu' came into contact with Iranians and became Hindu or Hind. In this Hind word pronounced by Iranians, the use of 'one' suffix of Iranian language has made the word 'Hindu' which means 'of Hind'. The Greek word 'indica' or the English word 'India' is the developed form of this 'Hindu'.
The literature of Hindi is derived from 1000 AD. Earlier literature received is in Apabhransh, it can be considered as the former chair of Hindi. Modern languages have been born with various forms of apabhramsa in this way:
- Apabhramsa - Modern languages
- Shaurseni - Western Hindi, Rajasthani, Pahari, Gujarati
- Paishachi - Hindi, Punjabi
- Brachd - Sindhi
- Maharashtra - Marathi
- Magadhi - Bihari, Bangla, Oriya, Assamese
- Western Hindi - Khadi Boli or Kauravi, Bridge, Haryanvi, Bundel, Kannauji
- Eastern Hindi - Awadhi, Bagheli, Chhattisgarhi
- Rajasthani - Western Rajasthani (Marwari) East Rajasthani
- Hill - Western hill, intermediate hill (Kumaoni-Garhwali)
- Bihari - Bhojpuri, Magadhi, Maithili
Adikal - (1000-1500)
In its early days, Hindi was very close to Apabhransh in all things, from this Apabhransh, Hindi was born. A, aa, e, u, uo, ai, and au had only these eight vowels in Adi Apabhransh. E, au, vowels were added to Hindi during this period. Early, Hindi was close to Apabhramsa from around 1000 to 1100 AD. Its grammar was also working like Apabhramsa. With the gradual changes taking place and by 1500 AD, Hindi stood independently. Around 1460 literature surgeons had started in the country language. In this period compositions have been done in verses like Doha, Chaupai, Chappay Doha, Gatha etc. The principal creators of this period are Gorakhnath, Vidyapati, Narpati Nalah, Chandavardai, Kabir etc.
Medieval - (1500–1800)
There were many changes in Hindi during this period. Due to the rule of the Mughals on the country, their language had an impact on Hindi. The result was that about 3500 words of Persian, 2500 words of Arabic, 50 words from Pashtas, 125 words of Turkish were included in Hindi vocabulary. Trade with Europe, etc. was increasing. As a result, the words of Portuguese, Spanish, French and English were incorporated into Hindi. The influence of Mughal suzerainty was visible on the language. Persian educated scholars got jobs in the Mughal court, as a result, educated people started doing Hindi syntax like Persian. By this period, the entire influence of Apabhransh was eradicated from Hindi, which was partly where it was remaining and according to the nature of Hindi, it was becoming a part of Hindi.
The golden literature of Hindi was created during this period. The Bhakti movement affected the sentiments of the people of the country. There were many scholars among the Bhakti poets who were using the language at that time. Poetry was composed in the Braj language of Rama and Krishna's birth place, which is considered the mainstream of literature of this period. In the same period Dakhini Hindi form emerged. The compositions were also being written in Pingal, Maithili and Khadi Boli. The main poets of this period are Mahakavi Tulsidas, Sant Surdas, Sant Meerabai, Malik Mohammad Jaisi, Bihari, Bhushan. Ramcharitmanas, composed in this period, became famous in the world.
Modern period (since 1800)
The modern period of Hindi is a witness to many changes in the country. The countrymen were trying to stand against it while living in the sub-continent. The influence of English began to be seen on the language and culture of the country. The prevalence of English words started increasing with Hindi. The end of the Mughal period led to a decline in the circulation of Arabic, Persian words. The acceptance of A, B, C, J, F sounds from Persian ended in Hindi. With exception, the sound of H and F is left. A, B, C sounds changed to A, B, C. This entire period can be divided from 1800 to 1850 and then from 1850 to 1900 and 1900 to 1910 and from 1950 to 2000.
Born in Samvat 1830, Munshi Sadasukh Lal Niaz used the Hindi Khadi dialect. Khadi Boli also existed at that time. The Khadi Boli or Kauravi originated from the northern form of the Shaurseni Apabhramsa. Its area is the plains of Dehradun, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Delhi Bijnor, Rampur, Moradabad. There are enough folk songs and folk tales in this dialect. Urdu, Hindustani and Deccan Hindi depend on the standing dialect. Insha Allah Khan is the author of this period other than Munshi Sada Sukhlal Niyaz. His story book of Queen Ketaki is famous. Lallulal is another famous writer of this period. He was born in Samvat 1820 at the request of John Gilchrist, a teacher at Fort William College, Kolkata, Lallulal ji wrote the book 'Prem Sagar' in Khadi Boli.
Apart from Prem Sagar, Throne Battisi, Betal Pachisi, Shakuntala plays are also his books in Khadi Boli, in a mixed form of Braj and Urdu. Another author of this period is Sadal Mishra. His book Nachiketopakhyakana is famous. Sadal Mishra has used Arabic and Persian words sparingly. This book written in Khadi dialect has more Sanskrit words. Classical works are often not found between the period 1860 to 1914. By the time of 1860, Hindi prose had almost taken its definite form.
To take advantage of this, the English clergy translated the Bible into Khadi Boli for the propagation of Christianity, although their goal was to propagate their religion. However, Hindi got its benefit, the common people of the country used to say and listen to their mythological narratives in Arabic-Persian mixed language. These priests also used this mixed form of language. By now, the first freedom war of 1857 had been fought, so with the help of diplomacy of the British rulers, there was a lot of propagation of biblical religion through Hindi. Bharatendu Harishchandra laid the foundation of Hindi Renaissance. He did a lot of work for the upliftment of Hindi language through his plays, poems, proverbs and stories. Through his letter 'Kavyavashasudha', Hindi was promoted.
In prose, writers like Sadal Mishra, Sadasukhlal, Lallu Lal etc. established the Hindi Khadiboli. Bharatendu Harishchandra freed the poem from Braj language and connected it to the reality of life.
Along with English, Hindi is the most widely used language in North India (including the Hindi belt) as the official language of the government of India. Due to the fame and influence of Bollywood movies, melodies and artists, well-to-do people in Afghanistan, especially in Kabul, can speak and understand Hindi-Urdu. Hindi is similarly spoken by a large number of Madhesi people (who settled in northern India, however, they have moved to Nepal to more than a large area of Nepal). Apart from this, Hindi is spoken by the vast Indian diaspora that comes from or originates from the "Hindi belt" of India. It is significant that the northern Indian diaspora lives in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, the United Arab Emirates, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, South Africa, Fiji, and Mauritius, where they speak at home and with each other. Hindustani-speaking network. Outside of India, there are 8 million Hindi speakers in Nepal; 863,077 in the United States of America; 450,170 in Mauritius; 380,000 in Fiji; 250,292 in South Africa; 150,000 in Suriname; 100,000 in Uganda; 45,800 in the UK; 20,000 in New Zealand; 20,000 in Germany; 26,000 in Trinidad and Tobago; 3,000 in Singapore.
Under section 343, the official languages of the Union are specified, including Hindi in the Devanagari script and English:
- (1) The official language of the Union must be Hindi in the Devanagari script. The form of digits to be used for official Union purposes is the international form of Indian numbers.
- (2) Notwithstanding the provisions of clause (1), fifteen years after the beginning of this Constitution, the English language will continue to be used for all official purposes of the Union. During this period, the president may order the use of Devanagari numbers in addition to the English language and the international form of Indian numbers for any official purpose of Union.
“The Union should promote the diffusion of the Hindi language, develop it in such a way that it can serve as a means of expression for all elements of the complex culture of India, and ensure its enrichment, assimilation, without its genius, affect their shapes, their style and their forms of expression. used in Hindustani and the other languages of India listed in the Eighth Appendix, and loans if necessary or desirable for their vocabulary, mainly in Sanskrit and secondarily in other languages.’’-states Article 351 of the Indian Constitution.
It was envisaged that Hindi would become the sole working language of the Central Government by 1965 (Article 344 (2) and Article 351). However, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi by non-native speakers, especially from southern India (such as Tamil Nadu) led to the passage of the Official Language Act of 1963, which continued to use indefinite English. Kept However, all the government objectives were maintained by the central government's constitutional directive to promote the spread of Hindi and its policies were severely affected.
At the state level, Hindi is the official language of the following states in India: Bihar, Chattysgar, Hariyana, Himachal Pradesh, Jarkand, Madiya Pradesh, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaracand. It is a block and subdivision where more than 10% of the population speaks Hindi and serves as an additional official language of West Bengal. Each can also specify a "joint official language". For example, in Uttar Pradesh, the language is generally Urdu, depending on the political formation of power. Similarly, Hindi has received official language status in the following federal jurisdictions: Metropolitan Area, Andaman Nikobal, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu Islands.
The status of the national language of Hindi has been the subject of much debate. In 2010, the Gujarat High Court made it clear that Hindi was not the national language of India because the Constitution did not mention it.