HISTORY AND EVOLUTION
As indicated by foundations like Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Tamil, as a Dravidian lingo, slides via Proto-Dravidian, a proto-lingo. Semantic reproduction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken near third thousand years BC, potentially in the district close by reduced Godavari river pot in peninsular India.
Among Indian dialects, Tamil has the most antiquated non-Sanskritic Indian literature. Intellectual classify the confirmed history of the lingo into three phases: Old Tamil (300 BC–AD 700), Middle Tamil (700–1600) and Modern Tamil (1600–present).
As indicated by Hindu icon, Tamil or in embodiment structure Tamil Thāi (Mother Tamil) was made by Lord Shiva. Murugan, adored as the Tamil God, alongside sage Agastya, carried it to the individuals.
Notwithstanding the verity that name of the lingo which was constructed by Tamil Sangams is referenced as Tamil, the era when the name "Tamil" changed to enforce to the lingo is muddled, equally as verbatim historical underpinnings of the name.
The Samavayanga Sutra dated to the third century BC holds a credential to a Tamil content named 'Damili'.
Southworth approves that the name comes via hat miḻ > hat iḻ "self-talk", or "one's own discourse". Kamil Zvelebil approves a derivation of cap iḻ, with hat signifying "self" or "one's self", and "- iḻ" having the morpheme of "unfurling sound". Then again, he proposes a deduction of tamiḻ < cap iḻ < *tav-iḻ < *tak-iḻ, which means in birthplace "the appropriate cycle (of talking)".
The Tamil Lexicon of University of Madras identifies "Tamil" as "sweetness". S. V. Subramanian offers the revealing "sweet stable", from cap — "sweet" and il — "sound".
Old Tamil is the time of the Tamil language spreading over the third century BC to the eighth century AD. The most punctual records in Old Tamil are short engravings from betwixt the third and second century BC in caverns and on stoneware. These engravings are written in a variation of the Brahmi content called Tamil-Brahmi. The soonest long content in Old Tamil is the Tolkāppiyam, an untimely toil on Tamil lingo and poetics, whose most seasoned coatings could be as old as the late second century BC. Numerous abstract works in Old Tamil have additionally endured. These incorporate a corpus of 2,381 sonnets altogether known as Sangam writing. These sonnets are generally dated to between the first century BC and fifth century AD.
The advancement of Old Tamil into Middle Tamil, which is for the most part taken to have been finished by the eighth century, was portrayed by various phonological and linguistic changes. In punctuation, the main change was the rise of the current state. The current state advanced out of the action word kil , signifying "to be conceivable" or "to happen to". In Old Tamil, this action word was utilized as an angle marker to show that an activity was miniature durative, non-maintained or non-enduring, generally in mix with a clock, for example, n. In Middle Tamil, this use developed into a current state marker – kiṉṟa – which joined the old viewpoint and clocks.
The Nannul remains the standard standardizing sentence structure for present day artistic Tamil, which in this manner keeps on being founded on Middle Tamil of the thirteenth century instead of on Modern Tamil. Casual communicated in Tamil, interestingly, shows various changes. The negative formation of action words, for instance, has dropped out of utilization in Modern Tamil – all things being equal, refutation is communicated either morphologically or linguistically. Present day communicated in Tamil likewise shows various sound changes, specifically, an inclination to bring down high vowels in beginning and average positions, and the vanishing of vowels among plosives and between a plosive and rhotic.
Contact with European dialects influenced composed and communicated in Tamil. Changes in composed Tamil incorporate the utilization of European-style accentuation and the utilization of consonant bunches that were not allowed in Middle Tamil. The punctuation of composed Tamil has likewise changed, with the presentation of new aspectual helpers and more mind boggling sentence structures, and with the development of a more unbending word request that takes after the syntactic contention structure of English. At the same time, a solid strain of semantic purism arose in the mid twentieth century, finishing in the Pure Tamil Movement which called for expulsion of all Sanskritic components from Tamil. It got some help from Dravidian parties. This prompted the substitution of a critical number of Sanskrit loanwords by Tamil counterparts, however numerous others remain.
Tamil is a traditional lingo and one of the essential dialects of the Dravidian lingo family. Articulated transcendently by Tamils in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Singapore, it has more modest networks of orators in various distinct lands. From 1996, it was the eighteenth most articulated lingo, with more than 74 million orators around the planet. It is one of the authority lingos of India, Singapore and Sri Lanka.
Tamil is the significant dialect of great proportion of individuals dwelling in Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, (in India) and in the Northern and Eastern regions of Sri Lanka.
At present, there is substantial Tamil-talking mass plunged from pilgrim phase transients in Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Mauritius, South Africa, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, and Vietnam. An enormous network of Pakistani Tamils orators prevails in Karachi, Pakistan, which subsumes Tamil-speaking Hindus just as Christians and Muslims – involving few Tamil-speaking Muslim displaced people from Sri Lanka. There are around 100 Tamil Hindu families in Madrasi Para state in Karachi .They talk flawless Tamil alongside Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi. Tamil is likewise articulated by travellers from Sri Lanka and India in Canada, the United States (particularly New Jersey and New York City), Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and numerous other European and Middle Eastern nations.
Tamil is the authority lingo of the Indian province of Tamil Nadu and one of the 22 dialects beneath timetable 8 of the constitution of India. It is considered as one of authority dialects of the association domains of Puducherry and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Tamil is additionally one of the authority dialects of Singapore. Tamil is one of the authority and public dialects of Sri Lanka, alongside Sinhala. It was once given ostensible authority status in the Indian province of Haryana, purportedly as a repel to Punjab, however there was no validated Tamil-talking populace in the state, and was later supplanted by Punjabi, in 2010.
Tamil appreciates an exceptional position of assurance beneath Article 6(b), Chapter 1 of the Constitution of South Africa and is educated as a matter in schools in KwaZulu-Natal area. As of late, it has been turned out as a subject of study in schools in the French abroad branch of Réunion.
Furthermore, with the formation in October 2004 of a lawful position for traditional dialects by the Government of India and ensuing a political mission upheld by a few Tamil affiliations, Tamil turned into the primary legitimately perceived Classical lingo of India. The acknowledgment was declared by the concurrent President of India, Abdul Kalam, in a common sedentary of the two places of the Indian Parliament on 6 June 2004.